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Mali : comment la France a tourné la page IBK

Il y a une semaine, la Cédéao, la communauté des États ouest-africains, exigeait encore le retour d’Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta à la tête du Mali. Cette condition n’est plus d’actualité et les négociations avec la junte au pouvoir portent désormais sur l’organisation de la transition politique dans le pays. De son côté, la France, partenaire privilégié du Mali notamment sur le plan militaire, a lâché IBK, son allié depuis sept ans, beaucoup plus vite.

Le ministre des Affaires étrangères français a déclaré ce jeudi sur RTL : « Il y a eu un coup d’État que nous condamnons, mais il y a aussi eu la démission d’Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta. » En séparant bien le désordre constitutionnel en cours du départ du chef de l’État, Jean Yves Le Drian a acté définitivement, comme la Cédéao, la fin de l’ère IBK.

Le retour d’IBK jugé « irréaliste »

Le chef de la diplomatie française a même ajouté que l’ex-président malien avait déjà eu « de nombreuses alertes » du président français « Emmanuel Macron lors de la réunion [du G5] de Nouakchott fin juin », ainsi que de ses homologues ouest africains.

Dès le lendemain du putsch, une note diplomatique a été envoyée aux ambassades françaises de la région pour signifier que le retour d’IBK était « irréaliste ».

Gangréné par la corruption et le clientélisme, peu efficace sur le front sécuritaire face aux jihadistes, IBK était aussi depuis début juin la cible d’une coalition de l’opposition, le M5-RFP, qui organise de grandes manifestations à Bamako depuis trois mois. « Il y avait une crise de confiance de la part du peuple malien et une impasse politique qui menaçait d’affecter le fonctionnement de l’armée », analyse l’ancien ambassadeur français à Bamako Nicolas Normand qui a publié en 2019 Le grand livre de l’Afrique (éditions Eyrolles).

Priorité à la sécurité

De plus, explique ce dernier, « la junte qui a pris le pouvoir est apparue assez modérée et assez structurée » en annonçant vouloir transmettre le pouvoir aux civils avec l’organisation de nouvelles élections.

« Des déclarations rassurantes pour Paris » qui a vite conclu que ce coup d’Etat « était un moindre mal », explique l’ancien diplomate. D’abord de manière informelle, puis officiellement, un rapprochement s’est donc opéré avec les putschistes pour « accompagner la junte vers un retour à l’ordre démocratique ». Selon Nicolas Normand, cela montre bien que les Français ont profité de la crise pour écarter cet allié au piètre bilan et passer rapidement à autre chose, privilégiant comme d’habitude la stabilité de la zone.

Dans un rapport, l’International Crisis Group estime que la crise témoigne d’ailleurs d’un échec de cette stratégie du tout-sécuritaire au Mali.

« En privilégiant la sécurité sur la gouvernance, les partenaires du Mali ont négligé le fait qu’un État compétent et pourvoyeur de services est un fondement indispensable de la stabilité du pays et de la région », écrivent les chercheurs.

Senegal7 avec Rfi

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